After having been at the forefront of the Arab uprising, Egypt has witnessed an unprecedented human rights crisis in recent years. Since the 2013 military takeover, abductions, enforced disappearances, torture and arbitrary detention have become systematic. The government led by Field Marshal Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi has instituted a widespread repression of all critical voices, including members of civil society, the media and opposition parties.

Violations to the right to life have also become a major concern. In 2013, the use of live bullets to disperse crowds of protesters led to more than a thousand deaths of civilians, while the lives of individuals in detention continue to be endangered by torture, mistreatment and a lack of medical care. The number of death sentences handed out has also increased, particularly following mass trials to prosecute opponents and demonstrators in the wake of the military takeover.    

Fundamental freedoms have been virtually emptied of their substance through the enactment of laws criminalising peaceful dissent and independent media work, forbidding demonstrations and putting the work of NGOs under the strict control of the executive. At the same time, the use of counter-terrorism legislation to prosecute individuals for peaceful criticism is a growing trend.    

Human Rights Instruments
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
ICCPR ratified?
ICCPR ratified on
Has the Human Rights Committee individual complaint mechanism been accepted?
Has the second Optional Protocol of the ICCPR (abolition of the death penalty) been ratified?
Human Rights Committee Concluding Observations last issued on
Next Human Rights Committee state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (UNCAT)
UNCAT ratified?
UNCAT ratified on
Has the Optional Protocol to the UNCAT been ratified?
Has a National Preventive Mechanism against torture been created?
Has the confidential inquiry procedure been accepted?
Has the individual complaint procedure been accepted?
Committee against Torture (CAT) Concluding Observations last issued on
Next CAT state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED)
ICPPED ratified?
Human Rights Council
Last Universal Periodic Review (UPR) held on
Next Universal Periodic Review to be held on
Membership of Human Rights Council:


National Human Rights Institution
Accreditation with the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI)