More than seven years after the Libyan revolution, the country remains entrenched in an intricate civil conflict in which armed groups are failing to abide by the laws of armed conflict. The majority of human rights and humanitarian law violations occurring in Libya are committed by militias — acting with differing degrees of autonomy — on behalf of one of the two competing governments, the UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA), based in Tripoli, and the government based in the eastern cities of al-Bayda and Benghazi under the control of forces headed by Khalifa Haftar.

Operating outside any legal framework, these forces routinely carry out arbitrary arrests, abductions and enforced disappearances as well as torture and extrajudicial executions. Thousands of people are being detained in facilities under the control of the GNA’s Ministry of Interior or the Ministry of Defence, as well as those run by militias affiliated with the latter.

Libya’s political fragmentation and the lack of an independent and functioning judiciary renders the prosecution of perpetrators impossible. Accountability remains, therefore, an important issue for the whole country. Lastly, as the European Union is increasingly relying on Libya to limit migrant arrivals to its borders, detention centres have been set up in the country where refugees and migrants aiming to cross the Mediterranean are arbitrarily and indefinitely detained, and exposed to serious human rights violations.

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
ICCPR ratified?
ICCPR ratified on
Has the Human Rights Committee individual complaint mechanism been accepted?
ICCPR Optional Protocol 1 ratified on
Has the second Optional Protocol of the ICCPR (abolition of the death penalty) been ratified?
Human Rights Committee Concluding Observations last issued on
Next Human Rights Committee state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (UNCAT)
UNCAT ratified?
UNCAT ratified on
Has the Optional Protocol to the UNCAT been ratified?
Has a National Preventive Mechanism against torture been created?
Has the confidential inquiry procedure been accepted?
Has the individual complaint procedure been accepted?
Committee against Torture (CAT) Concluding Observations last issued on
Next CAT state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED)
ICPPED ratified?
Human Rights Council
Last Universal Periodic Review (UPR) held on
Next Universal Periodic Review to be held on
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