In the context of the protracted armed conflict, civilians have suffered from gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law committed by both government forces and non-state armed groups. Hundreds of thousands of victims have lost their lives in the conflict, and more than half of the population has been displaced.

Government forces have subjected the civilian population to indiscriminate and deliberate attacks, including through the use of illegal weapons, amounting to war crimes. Extrajudicial executions, arbitrary detention and torture have become pervasive. Moreover, the practice of enforced disappearance has reached unprecedented levels and constitutes a crime against humanity, as it is used in a widespread and systematic manner.

Non-state armed groups have also been involved in committing gross acts of violence against civilians, as well as resorted to kidnappings and torture. Moreover, international actors involved in the conflict, in particular Russia and the United States, have failed to take any precautionary measures to protect the civilian population and civilian objects, leading to thousands of deaths in airstrikes.

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Country legislation

Penal Code, 1949 (AR)

Counter-terrorism Law, 2012 (AR)

Cybercrime Law, 2012 (AR)

Demonstrations Law, 2012 (AR)

Decree on Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing, 2005 (AR)

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Human Rights Instruments
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
ICCPR ratified?
ICCPR ratified on
Has the Human Rights Committee individual complaint mechanism been accepted?
Has the second Optional Protocol of the ICCPR (abolition of the death penalty) been ratified?
Human Rights Committee Concluding Observations last issued on
Next Human Rights Committee state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (UNCAT)
UNCAT ratified?
UNCAT ratified on
Has the Optional Protocol to the UNCAT been ratified?
Has a National Preventive Mechanism against torture been created?
Has the confidential inquiry procedure been accepted?
Has the individual complaint procedure been accepted?
Committee against Torture (CAT) Concluding Observations last issued on
Next CAT state report due on
OVERDUE - State party did not submit report on time
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED)
ICPPED ratified?
Human Rights Council
Last Universal Periodic Review (UPR) held on
Next Universal Periodic Review to be held on
Membership of Human Rights Council:

2007 / 2011

National Human Rights Institution